1. Analytical Exposition Text
Definition of Analytical Exposition
Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter.
Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition
1. Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position
2. Arguments: Explaining the arguments to support the writer’s position
3. Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position
Language Features of Analytical Exposition
- Using relational process
- Using internal conjunction
- Using causal conjunction
- Using Simple Present Tense
2. Hortatory Exposition Text
Definition of Hortatory Exposition
Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way.
Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition
Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition
1. Focusing on the writer
2. Using abstract noun; policy, advantage, etc
3. Using action verb
4. Using thinking verb
5. Using modal adverb; certainly, surely, etc
6. Using temporal connective; firstly, secondly, etc
7. Using evaluative words; important, valuable, trustworthy, etc
8. Using passive voice
9. Using simple present tense
3. Discussion Text
Definition of Discussion
Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical, historic, and social text.
Generic Structure of Discussion
Statement of issue; stating the issue which is to discussed
List of supporting points; presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue
List of contrastive point; presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point
Recommendation; stating the writer’ recommendation of the discourse
Language Feature of Discussion
Introducing category or generic participant
Using thinking verb; feel, hope, believe, etc
Using additive, contrastive, and causal connection; similarly, on the hand, however, etc
Using modalities; must, should, could, may, etc
Using adverbial of manner; deliberately, hopefully, etc
4. Narrative Text
Definition of Narrative
Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers.
Generic Structure of Narrative
A narrative text will consists of the following structure:
1. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place
2. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with
3. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises, better or worse
Language Features of Narrative
Using processes verbs
Using temporal conjunction
Using Simple Past Tense
5. Recount Text
Definition of Recount
Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative
Generic Structure of Recount
1. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time
2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past
3. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story
Language Feature of Recount
• Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc
• Using chronological connection; then, first, etc
• Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc
• Using action verb; look, go, change, etc
• Using simple past tense
6. News Item Text
Definition of News Item
News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are considered newsworthy or important.
Generic Structure of News Item
1. Main event
2. Elaboration (background, participant, time, place)
3. Resource of information
Language Feature of News Item
1. Focusing on circumstances
2. Using material process
7. Report Text
Definition of Report
Report is a text which presents information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis
Generic Structure of Report
1. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal, public place, plant, etc which will be discussed in general
2. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail; part per part , customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials
Language Feature of Report
• Introducing group or general aspect
• Using conditional logical connection; when, so, etc
• Using simple present tense
8. Descriptive Text
The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.
The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text has structure as below:
Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described.
Description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics.
The Language Feature of Descriptive Text
Using attributive and identifying process.
Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group.
Using simple present tense.
9. Explanation Text
Definition and purposes of Explanation
Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena. Explanation text is to say ‘why’ and ‘how’ about the forming of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.
Generic structure of Explanation
General statement; stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained.
Sequenced explanation; stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena.
Language Feature of Explanation
Featuring generic participant; sun, rain, etc
Using chronological connection; to begin with, next, etc
Using passive voice pattern
Using simple present tense
10. Procedure Text
Definition of Procedure
Procedure is a text that show a process in order. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series
Generic Structure of Procedure
1. Goal: showing the purpose
2. Material: Telling the needed materials
3. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose
Language Feature of Procedure
Using temporal conjunction
Using action verb
Using imperative sentence
Using Simple Present Tense
11. Anecdote Text
Definition and Social Function of Anecdote
Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers.
Generic Structure of Anecdote
Language Feature of Anecdote
1. Using exclamation words; it’s awful!, it’s wonderful!, etc
2. Using imperative; listen to this
3. Using rhetoric question; do you know what?
4. Using action verb; go, write, etc
5. Using conjunction of time; then, afterward
6. Using simple past tense